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Title LOT Groups Algebra and Analysis Dr Martin Edjvet A labelled oriented graph is a connected, finite, directed graph in which each edge is labelled by a vertex. A labelled oriented graph gives rise to a group presentation whose generating set is the vertex set and whose defining relations say that the initial vertex of an edge is conjugated to its terminal vertex by its label. A group G is a LOG group if it has such a presentation. A LOT group is a LOG group for which the graph is a tree. Every classical knot group is a LOT group. In fact LOT groups are characterised as the fundamental groups of ribbon n-discs in Dn+2.The most significant outstanding question on the topology of ribbon discs is: are they aspherical? The expected answer is yes. Howie has shown that it is sufficient to prove that LOT groups are locally indicable. An interesting research project would be to study the following two questions: is every LOT group locally indicable; is every LOT group an HNN extension of a finitely presented group? J. Howie, On the asphericity of ribbon disc complements, Trans Amer Math Soc, 289, 281-302, 1985
Title Equations over groups Algebra and Analysis Dr Martin Edjvet Let G be a group. An expression of the form g1 t … gk t=1 where each gi is an element of G and the unknown t is distinct from G is called an equation over G. The equation is said to have a solution if G embeds in a group H containing an element h for which the equation holds. There are two unsettled conjectures here. The first states that if G is torsion-free then any equation over G has a solution. The second due to Kervaire and Laudenbach states that if the sum of the exponents of t is non-zero then the equation has a solution. There have been many papers published in this area. The methods are geometric making use of diagrams over groups and curvature. This subject is related to questions of asphericity of groups which could also be studied.
Title Cohomology Theories for Algebraic Varieties Algebra and Analysis Dr Alexander Vishik After the groundbreaking works of V. Voevodsky, it became possible to work with algebraic varieties by completely topological methods. An important role in this context is played by the so-called Generalized Cohomology Theories. This includes classical algebraic K-theory, but also a rather modern (and more universal) Algebraic Cobordism theory. The study of such theories and cohomological operations on them is a fascinating subject. It has many applications to the classical questions from algebraic geometry, quadratic form theory, and other areas. One can mention, for example: the Rost degree formula, the problem of smoothing algebraic cycles, and u-invariants of fields. This is a new and rapidly developing area that offers many promising directions of research.